書評:《從舊約傳講基督》

桂丹諾著,《從舊約傳講基督》(麥種,2015)

評論者:Aaron Menikoff

轉載自「健康教會九標誌」

 

桂丹諾的《從舊約傳講基督》1999年已經出版。 此書之所以問世,是因為在當時,沒有當代書籍帶領神學生或教會牧師流覽以基督為中心的舊約講道基礎內容。 自1999年,聖經神學席捲了很多福音派的圈子,許多作者就此著書,聖經神學得以流行,教會獲益。 即便如此,《從舊約傳講基督》仍然值得讀上又讀,因為致力於釋經講道的牧者們必須明白聖經主要的主題,更要能處理一些特別的經文如何明確指向基督。

本質上說,桂丹諾認為,既然舊約見證基督,忠心的講道人必須以基督作為焦點根據舊約講道。 他將「傳講基督」定義為「講道的講章,是真正整合經文的資訊和神啟示的高潮,也就是神在新約聖經關乎耶穌基督的位格、工作和/或教導的啟示。 」(中文版34頁)桂丹諾接下來用300多頁的篇幅闡釋了這一概念。

桂丹諾不僅捍衛從舊約傳講基督的必要性,也捍衛從一般意義上傳講舊約。 桂丹諾認為,訴諸聖經的統一性,舊約能使教會更為全面地認識耶穌基督。

本書相當一部分闡述了舊約講道的歷史概況,特別關注寓意詮釋的危險。 桂丹諾固然批評挑刺,卻並非對在他之前的解經家不屑一顧,反而細緻評估講道人的貢獻,直回溯到俄利根,不過更多的篇幅卻花在了加爾文、路德、司布真以及魏瑟(Vischer)上,後者是一位20世紀的神學家,曾遭納粹禁止教導。 閱讀這一歷史,知道幾個世紀以來講道人都在這些概念上孜孜不倦,真是讓人欣慰。 今天的牧師們有機會借鑒他們的錯誤以及洞見。

本書的精華是桂丹諾提出的確切地從舊約傳講基督的方法論。 作者認為,從舊約通往基督有很多「路徑」,而講道人有責任學習這張地圖。 這些路徑包括:

● 救贖歷史進程(某些事件在基督裡得以應驗);
● 應許—應驗(舊約特定的應許由基督應驗);
● 預表論(過去的行動或人物預示或預表福音事件和人物);
● 類比(粗略的說,神之于以色列,如同基督之于新約教會);
● 縱向主題(舊約主題借由基督重新詮釋);以及
● 參照(基督帶來的新舊約之間的差異)。

除了這些路徑,桂丹諾提議的「救贖歷史的、以基督為中心的」方法,提倡講道人尋找與舊約經文相關的新約參考經文。 這樣,新約本身成為從希伯來聖經傳講基督的指南。

最後,任何要提出原則的、關於講道的書,都要以行動展示這些原則,桂丹諾應用自己的方法深度分析了創世記第22章。 作者也在另外五段經文中應用了這一方法,只是沒有那麼深入:創世記6:9-8:22;出埃及記15:22-27;17:8-16;民數記19章以及約書亞記第2章和第6章。

講道並不容易,從舊約忠心地傳講尤其令人卻步。 鑒於此,《從舊約傳講基督》是優秀的資源,尚未有其它書能取代。 鄧尼斯·詹森的《我們傳揚祂》可與之媲美。 然而,鑒於桂丹諾鐳射般地聚焦于舊約,又鑒於關於從舊約講道的書是鳳毛麟角,對於想要搞懂救贖歷史講道的牧者們來說,他的書仍然是非常有用的工具。

Book Review: Preaching Christ from the Old Testament, by Sidney Greidanus

Sidney Greidanus’s Preaching Christ from the Old Testament has been in print since 1999. Greidanus wrote it because, at the time, no contemporary books took a seminary student or church pastor through the basics of Christocentric, Old Testament preaching. Since 1999, biblical theology has stormed into many evangelical circles and been popularized for the church’s good by a number of authors. Still, Preaching Christ is worth a second (or a first) look, if only because pastors committed to preaching expositionally must move beyond understanding the main themes of the Bible to addressing how particular texts point to Christ with great specificity.

In essence, Greidanus argues that, since the Old Testament witnesses to Christ, faithful preachers must preach sermons from the Old Testament with Christ as the focus. He defines “preaching Christ” as “preaching sermons which authentically integrate the message of the text with the climax of God’s revelation in the person, work, and/or teaching of Jesus Christ as revealed in the New Testament” (10). Greidanus then spends over 300 pages unpacking this idea.

He not only defends the necessity of preaching Christ from the Old Testament, but of preaching the Old Testament in general. Appealing to the unity of Scripture, Greidanus argues that the Old Testament gives the church a fuller understanding of Jesus Christ.

A large portion of the book is devoted to a historical overview of Old Testament preaching, with special attention given to the dangers of allegorizing. Greidanus is critical but not dismissive of interpreters who have come before him, carefully assessing the contributions of preachers going back as far as Origen, but devoting extended space to Calvin, Luther, Spurgeon, and William Vischer, a twentieth-century theologian banned from teaching by the Nazis. Reading this history, it is comforting to know that preachers have been wrestling with these ideas for centuries. Pastors today have the opportunity to learn from their insights as well as their mistakes.

The meat of the book is the methodology Greidanus proposes for actually preaching Christ from the Old Testament. He argues that there are many “roads” that lead from the Old Testament to Christ, and it is incumbent upon preachers to learn the map. Some of the roads include

● redemptive-historical progression (certain events find their fulfillment in Christ);

● promise-fulfillment (specific Old Testament promises are fulfilled by Christ);

● typology (past acts or figures foreshadow or prefigure gospel events and figures);

● analogy (roughly speaking, God was for Israel what Christ is for the New Testament church);

● longitudinal themes (Old Testament themes reinterpreted in light of Christ); and

● contrast (differences between the Old and New Testaments brought by Christ).

In addition to these roads, the “redemptive-historical christocentric” method Greidanus proposes calls the preacher to look for New Testament references that link to Old Testament texts. In this way, the New Testament itself serves as a guide for preaching Christ from the Hebrew Bible.

Finally, any book on preaching that is going to posit principles should show those principles in action, which Greidanus does with an in depth application of his method to Genesis 22. To a lesser degree, he also applies it to five other texts: Genesis 6:9-8:22; Exodus 15:22-27; Exodus 17:8-16; Numbers 19; and Joshua 2 and 6.

Preaching is challenging, but preaching faithfully from the Old Testament is especially daunting. With this in mind, Preaching Christ from the Old Testament is an excellent resource that has yet to be replaced. Dennis Johnson’s Him We Proclaim comes closest, but given Greidanus’s laser-like focus on the Old Testament, and given the lack of books on preaching from the Old Testament, his book remains a very useful tool for pastors trying to make sense of redemptive-historical preaching.

評論者:Aaron Menikoff 是乔治亚州沙泉阜南浸信会(Mt. Vernon Baptist Church in Sandy Springs, Georgia)的主任牧师。

 

從舊約傳講基督-簡體正面

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